Maize is the staple food for most households in Kenya. It is mostly produced by small scale farmers.

Maize is also an important livestock feed both as silage and as crop residue, grain and is also used industrially for starch and oil extraction.

It is an important source of carbohydrate, protein, iron, vitamin B, and minerals. Kenyans consume maize in a wide variety of ways (ugali, porridges and beer). Green maize, fresh on the cob, is eaten roasted or boiled separately or mixed with legumes.

Every part of the maize plant has economic value: the grain, leaves, stalk, tassel, and cob can all be used to produce a large variety of food and non-food products.

Ecological Requirements


Maize can grow on a wide range of soils though it performs best in well drained and well aerated loam or silty loams or alluvial soils with a pH of 5.5 – 7. It is intolerant of water logging.


It can grow in a wide range of agro-ecological zones in Kenya ranging from 0-2200 M asl depending on variety. Very low or high altitudes results in poor yields.


The optimum temperatures for good yields is 300C. Cold conditions extends the maturity period whereas high temperatures lower the yields.


Maize grows well with 600 – 900mm of rainfall. The rainfall should be well distributed throughout the growing period. The rainfall is most critical at flowering and silking stage. Drought at flowering time interferes with pollination and drastically reduces yield. Towards harvesting, dry conditions are required to facilitate drying of the grain.

Recommended Varieties

Ecozone and main areas where foundRecommended varietiesMaturity (Months)Yield potential (Bags/acre)Resistance
Highland zones with high rainfall: Altitude: 1500-2100 m above sea level Areas: Trans Nzoia, Uasin Gishu, Nakuru, Kericho, Nandi, Bungoma,Laikipia, Kisii, Narok, and Tea zones of Central and Eastern ProvinceWest Pokot, Nyeri, Lower Nyandarua and upper KiambuH 627H626H 625H 614 D————H 6213H 6210 H6212KH600-14EKH600-15A H9401 H629   H6286-86-86-86-8———–6-8 –5-6 – 5-6 5-6   5-642383432———–5250 5134-38 – 48 48   46  ———————-Rust, grey leafspot, stem and leaf blightAs aboveNo resistance reported   Lodging, GLS,ear rot,rust, stem and leaf blight As above
Highland zones, high rainfall Altitude: 1000-1700 m above sea level Areas: Baringo, Siaya, Kisumu, Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega, Nakuru, South Nyanza, Taita TavetaH 632H 622 KS-H521 MZ51 KS-H519 H5186-86-8 5-6 5-6 5-6 5-62422 30 32 33 37      GLS GLS Blight and GLS Blight and GLS
Coffee zone medium long growing Season Altitude: 1000-1800 m above sea level Areas: Coffee zones of Central and Eastern Provinces, Kisii, Narok,Nakuru, Siaya, Kisumu, Busia, Kakamega, Bungoma,West Pokot, Keiyo, MarakwetH 513pH B 3253H512H511CG 4141CG 5222H 516 H515 Punda Milia 53 ———————- Simba 61 SC713   H 624 H623 KS-H5204-54-54-54-54-54-53-4 4-5 4-5 ———- 4-5 4-5   4-5 4-5 5-620201816181828 26 40 ——— 45 58   32 28 40  Ear rot, rust, GLS,stem and leaf blight     ————————— GLS & MSV tolerant   Resistant to GLS & Rust GLS
Dryland Areas: Marginal areas with low rainfall (400-800 mm) Altitude: 1000-1800 m above sea level Areas: Kitui, Machachos, West Pokot, Makueni, Kajiado, Isiolo,Lower Meru and Embu, Siaya, Kisumu Altitude: 800-1200 m above sea level:Drier areas, same as for Katumani compositeKatumani Composite DH 01DH02Makueni SC Duma 43     DH01 DH02 DH03 DH043-43-43-43-4   3-4     3-4 3-4 – 2-312141411   27     14 14 – –  Blight and MSV Heat tolerant
Lowland Zones: Hot humid Altitude: 1-1200 m above sea levelpH4 Pwani Hybrid 1Coast Composite3-43-44-5181614 
Recommended varieties

Source of Planting Material

Certified seeds are available from registered farm inputs stockists/ agrovets or authorized agents of Seed Companies.


Land Preparation

Early land preparation is recommended as this ensures timely sowing. Land should be prepared before the onset of rains.

Maize requires a seedbed of medium tilth.


Propagation is done through seeds.


The time of planting is most critical factor as it determines the yields. There is a drop of expected yields by 1-2 percent every day planting is delayed.

Where rainfall duration is short, dry planting 2-3 weeks before the onset of rains is recommended. In case of dry planting the seed are planted at 10 cm depth.

The normal planting depth is 2.5 – 5 cm depending on soil condition and temperature.

Region/zoneIdeal time for land preparationIdeal time of plantingRemarks
Cashew nut/coconutJan – March September – OctoberApril – May Mid OctoberBefore or at onset of rains
Dryland/marginal low rainfallFebruary – March September – OctoberMid March Mid OctoberBefore or at onset of rains
Medium altitude/ rainfallJan – MarchApril – May 
Highland/High rainfallJuly – October December –FebruaryOctober – November March – April 
Recommended times of land preparation planting for different regions

Spacing and Plant Population

Spacing and plant population is determined by the method of planting (either pure stand or intercrop) and rainfall.

ZoneSpacingPlants population (Plants/ha)
Tea75 cm X 30 cm44,000
Tea/Coffee75 cm X 30 cm44,000
Coffee75 cm x 25 cm53,000
Maize/sunflower75 cm x 30 cm44,000
Sugarcane75 cm x 30 cm44,000
Marginal/cotton90 cm x 30 cm37,000
Recommended spacing and plant population by zone

Maize Intercrop

Maize does well when intercropped with beans or other legumes.

Intercropping with legumes is recommended for higher rainfall areas while pure stand is recommended for marginal rainfall areas.

When intercropping is done with beans or cowpeas, one or two rows of legumes are sown after every row of maize. The distance between bean plants is 15 cm for two plants per hole.

Recommended legumes for intercropping in Kenya are beans, pigeon peas, cowpeas, groundnuts and soya beans. Other crops that have been tried with varying success include potatoes, cassava and pumpkin.

Intercropping maize with beans and other legumes like desmodium regulates pests (leafhopper, leaf beetles, stalk borer, armyworm) and increases the land utility.

Intercropping maize with beans and squash enhances parasitism of caterpillars. This practice increases the abundance of natural enemies where food sources for beneficial insects are made available. The intercropping system of maize-beans-squash is a low input and high yield strategy in the tropics. Maize yield is increased by as much as 50 percent over monoculture yield. Although the yields for beans and squash are reduced, the overall yield for the three combined crops is greater than when grown separately in monocultures

Alternative uses of maize in inter cropping

  • Shading of vegetable crops by planting single rows between vegetables in areas of high intensity of sunshine can increase yields of intercropped vegetables.
  • Use as support for runner beans for export or local consumption.

Field Management Practices

Fertilizer Application

When other husbandry practices are properly done, the use of fertilizers increases yield. Fertilizer recommendations are made when soil analysis has been done. The use of fertilizers in maize production is economic only where improved varieties are used.

Phosphate fertilizers should be applied in the planting holes in the time of sowing while nitrogen fertilizers should be top dressed when maize is knee high (45-60 cm high).

Area or districtSoil conditionTime of planting (amount per acre)Top dressing (amount per acre)
Trans Nzoia, Nandi, Uasin Gishu, Kericho        Newly cultivated forest soils36 Kg TSP 36 Kg DAP62 Kg CAN or ASN 40 Kg CAN or ASN
Old cultivated fertile soils52 Kg TSP 52 Kg DAP92 Kg CAN or ASN 58 Kg CAN
Moderately fertile soils70 Kg TSP 70 Kg DAP124 Kg CAN or ASN 74 Kg CAN
Soils of low fertility1 Ton FYM 36 Kg DAP + 1ton FYM62 Kg CAN or ASN 40 Kg CAN or ASN
Acidic soils of Uasin Gishu3 tons FYM  
Kisii highlands and Central Kenya52 Kg TSP 52 Kg DAP92 Kg CAN or ASN 58 Kg CAN
Nyanza & Western Province (Except on black cotton soils and Kisii Highlands) 36 Kg DAP 80 SSP40 Kg CAN 62 Kg CAN
Medium Zones of central province 100 Kg NPK 20:20:0
Marginal areas of Eastern province 60 kg – 80 Kg NPK 20:20:0
Coastal Lowlands– – Sandy Soils100 Kg NPK 20:20:0 44 Kg DAP 3 Ton FYM– 48 Kg ASN –
Broad fertilizer recommendations for maize growing areas in Kenya

Method of Application

When planting manually, is recommended to place a teaspoonful or soda bottle cap of fertilizer into each planting hole. Thoroughly mix the fertilizer with the soil and then place the seed. Under mechanical planting well calibrated planters with fertilizer hoppers are used.

Top dressing– in high rainfall areas the fertilizer is applied in two splits. 1st split is done 6 weeks after sowing and 2nd split is done 10-15 days later or just before tasseling. In low rainfall areas fertilizer is applied once.

Top dressing is done when the soils are moist, apply 1 teaspoonful of fertilizer at the base of each plant in a ring[approximately 15 cm radius] or along the row 15 cm away from the plant.


Weeding can be done mechanically/manually or by use of herbicides.

When done manually, first weeding is done within the 3rd week after planting or depending on the growth of weed in the area. The field should be kept weed free till maize tasseling after which their presence might not cause crop loss.

In pure stand, herbicides can be used to effectively control weeds. Instructions should be followed carefully to ensure effectiveness.

Rates of Applications

  • 2,4-D : 0.75 litres/ha – post emergence
  • Lasso/Atrazine 2-3 litres/ha – pre emergence
  • Primagram 3 litres/ha – pre emergence

Striga weed [Striga hermonthica]

In heavy infestation, Striga weed can cause losses between 50 percent-100 percent. It is common in Coast, Nyanza and parts of Western Province.


  • Uproot the weed as it flowers to avoid seeding.
  • High FYM application{25 ton per ha]
  • Use of fertilizers, particularly Ammonia type e.g. ASN
  • Rotation with crops like cotton, sunflower, soya bean and groundnuts
  • Intercrop with Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) to suppress the parasitic witchweed Striga.

Thinning and Gapping

Gapping is done to replace ungerminated seeds immediately after germination is complete.

Thinning is done when maize has grown to height of 15 cm by removing the weak and deformed seedlings to leave the desired number of seedlings per hole.

Pests & Diseases


Stem/stalk borers

Stem/stalk borers are the most important insect pests of maize in Kenya. Yield losses in areas vary between 10-70 percent. Young plants have pinholes in straight lines across the newest leaves.

This is the time to treat – before the larvae move on into the stem.

Control & treatment

  • Early Planting
  • Field sanitation
  • Crop rotation
  • Use Push-pull technology

Desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) when planted in between maize rows keep the stem borer moths away. This plant produces chemicals that repel stem borer moths.

Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sudan grass (Sorghum vulgare sudanese) are good trap crops for stem borers.

Cutworms (Agrotis spp. and other species)

Cutworms cut maize seedlings at or a little below ground level, make small holes along the initial leaves, or remove sections from the leaf margins.


  • Spray Bestox 10 EC when soils are moist.
  • You can also apply FASTAC

Maize aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)

It is a soft dark green to bluish-green in colour insect. The insect feeds on the inflorescene and young leaves especially during dry periods. This causes yellow mottling of leaves 


  • Spray with Dimethoate , Malathion, Karate

Termites (Microtermes spp., Macrotermes spp., Allodontermes spp., and Odontotermes spp)

Often referred to as “white ants”, they occasionally cause partial or total defoliation of maize seedlings, but are mainly damaging to older maize plants. Severely damaged plants may lodge and be completely destroyed by termites.

The longer a field has been cultivated, the greater will be the yield losses caused by termites. Their feeding inside the stems causes the plant to wither and sometimes die. Termites begin to attack the roots and stems about three months after planting, and eventually cover with tunnels built of soil. As plants mature the amount of damage increases rapidly.

Infestation is particularly serious in dry season.


  • Destroy termite nests, remove and kill the queen
  • Apply termite killers like Termindol, Imaxi
  • Seed dressing with Marshall 35 SD

Maize Weevil

The attack starts in the field where the female lays eggs in a slight hollow on the maize seed. The hatched larva bores thin tunnels beneath the seed coat leaving circular holes on the surface of the grain.


  • Early harvesting
  • Clean and dust with Actellic Super or Sumicombi the store well before use
  • Dust the shelled maize with either of the following chemicals Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag

The Larger Grain Borer (Prostephanus truncatus)

It attacks stored maize grains. Both the adults and the larvae (grubs) of the beetle feed in the grains.

Adults come from infested cobs in the field or from an infested maize store and lay eggs in the grains. Attacked maize grains lose all their contents and are not fit to eat. These pests become a serious problem in short time if no control measures are applied.

The larger grain borer also attacks wooden structures of the stores.


  • Leave the maize to dry completely in the field before stooking
  • Use the following chemicals
    • Dusts – Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag
    • Spray Actellic Super 50EC in the grain stores
    • Fumigants ( Restricted to NCPB and other large grain handlers)- Tablets like Celphose, Quickphos, Gastoxin tablets, Detia gas Ex-Tablets, Ex-B Fumigation Bags, Dages plates

Red Flour Beetle Tribolium spp

It is a small reddish-brown beetle that infest flour and previously damaged and broken grains


  • Early harvesting
  • Clean and dust with Actellic Super or Sumicombi the store well before use
  • Dust the shelled maize with either of the following chemicals Actellic Super, Sumicombi, Skana Super grain dust, Spintor Dust, Super Malper dust at a rate of 50 g per 90Kg bag


Maize Streak Virus

The virus is transmitted by leafhoppers (Cicadulina spp. (C. mbila / C. bipunctella zeae)).


  • The virus causes a white to yellowish streaking on the leaves. The streaks are very narrow, more or less broken and run parallel along the leaves.
  • Eventually the leaves turn yellow with long lines of green patches
  • Plants infected at early stage usually do not produce any cobs. Yield losses in East Africa vary between 33 and 55 percent under natural infection conditions


  • Use of tolerant / resistant varieties
  • Early rouging
  • Eradication of grass weeds
  • Control vector by spraying with dimethoate, malathion
  • Avoid overlap of two maize crops
  • Crop rotation
  • Use certified maize seed

Leaf blights (Bipolaris maydis (Helminthosporium maydis / Cochliobolus heterostrophus)).

Disease development is promoted by prolonged wetness on foliage, extended dew, Relative Humidity (97-100 percent) and relatively warm temperatures (24-35° C).


  • Small yellow dots that become elongated between veins appear.
  • They later become brownish to creamy white in colour with reddish to purplish brown borders.
  • The spots may join together and result in blighting of entire leaves. Silks, portions of the husks and cobs may turn black.
  • A black mould may develop on cobs.


  • Use of tolerant / resistant varieties
  • Good field sanitation (removal of crop residue after harvest or deep ploughing of crop residues)
  • Use certified seeds
  • Crop rotation

Grey leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis)

This disease is favoured by prolonged periods of high relative humidity. It can cause yield losses of 30 to over 50 percent.


  • Symptoms are similar to leaf blight but the spots are much narrower.
  • They are initially light brownish in colour
  • With age they bleach to ashen grey surrounded by narrow light-brownish border.
  • When wet, spore mass is formed on the spots with a light shade.


  • Use of tolerant / resistant varieties
  • Good field sanitation (removal of crop residue after harvest or deep ploughing of crop residues)
  • Use certified seeds
  • Crop rotation

Maize rusts (Puccinia sorghi)


  • Highland rust produces yellow–brown linear postules on leaves
  • Lowland rust produces light brown postules on upper leave surface.


  • Use of resistant varieties
  • Crop rotation
  • Deep ploughing of crop residue
  • Destruction of weed Oxalis sp. (an alternate host)

Maize Smuts (Common & Head smut)


  • The first symptoms become evident when tassels and cobs (ears) appear.
  • Large white to black galls on stalks, tassles and ears.
  • Masses of Black spores are released if galls are opened
  • The infested plant to do not produce any grains


  • Use certified seeds
  • Crop rotation
  • Use resistant varieties
  • Rogue and destroy by burning the affected plants


Maize can be harvested either green or dry.

Green maize is harvested for roasting or boiling.


Maize takes between 3- 8 months to mature depending on variety and weather condition.

Maturity indicators

  • The leaves and husks start to dry out
  • The part of the kernel where it is attached to the cob starts to turn brownish or blackish in 90 percent of the kernels of the cob. This is called black layer formation
  • The cobs are no longer appreciated for roasting
  • Upon breaking a kernel, the inside of it is no longer milky
  • At least a quarter of the cobs have started to droop
  • Moisture content is about 35 percent

Cutting, Stooking and Dehusking

It can be done manually by removing cob by cob or by cutting the stocks together with the cobs and stooking in the field to dry further.

Stooked maize may take 1-3 weeks to dry depending on weather condition after which cobs should be picked off (dehusking) and stored. Stooking allows ploughing for the next crop to be done between stooks.

Drying, Shelling

In-field drying can be supplemented by drying the cobs in improved drying structures (well ventilated cribs) and this reduces the risk of development of moulds.

The cobs can be brought out the cribs spread on mats or trays and exposed to solar radiation to ensure complete drying to the required moisture content for shelling.

Shelling should be done when the maize has a moisture content of 13-14 percent. Shelling by hand is the most common method. Other types of hand tools and machines are used to making shelling easier and increase capacity.

Maize is shelled for the following reasons:-

  • Mixing with insecticide is easier and more efficient
  • More accurate application rates of insecticide is attained
  • Prolonged Shelf life of the Shelled grain
  • It is easier to control and inspect the produce
  • Rodents may burrow in cob maize but cant cause significant damage below a surface grain

Once shelled, the maize should be cleaned by winnowing and then treated with the recommended chemical insecticides like Actellic Super (at 50g per 90 kg bag).


– Dried maize can be stored either in cobs or shelled.

– It can be stored in bins, silos, cribs, or in sacks. Sacks should be raised off the ground to allow air circulation


Refer to table 1 on recommended varieties by zone


Maize market is liberalized in Kenya. The government agent in-charge of marketing is National Cereals and Produce Board [NCPB].

Middlemen and small-scale traders also buy directly from farmers during glut periods and hold to sell when prices improve

Millers buy directly from farmers, NCPB, small scale traders and middlemen.

NCPB buys at a price set by the government which helps to stabilize the market prices


Maize is utilized in a variety of ways (ugali, porridges and beer). Green maize fresh on the cob, is eaten roasted or boiled separately or mixed with legumes.

Maize is also an important livestock feed both as silage and as crop residue, grain and is also used industrially for starch and oil extraction.


Energy341 kcal
Protein9.3 g
Vitamin A0.30 mg
Vitamin B10.08 mg
Vitamin B21.8 mg
Vitamin B33 mg
Vitamin C0
Calcium17.42 mg
Iron4.3 mg
Grain Nutritive Composition

Maize is rich in vitamin B which prevents birth defects, reduces the number of heart attacks and colon cancer. It is a good source of vitamin B1 to maintain memory. It is a good source of pantothenic acid which aid in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids metabolism and energy production under stress.

Cure bladder and kidney troubles and urination


                                                                  Production Level 
ItemUnitsPrice/UnitQuantityTotal ValueQuantityTotal ValueQuantityTotal value
Gross Income        
Yields90 kg bag200051000015300003060000
Gross Income   10000 30000060000
Variable Costs   0 000
Fertilizers – DAP50 KG Bag2500001250025000
-CAN50Kg bag1700001170023400
Chemicals -Fungicide RidomilKg0000000
– Insectides BulldockKg3000013002600
Land Preparation   0 000
– Ploughing 1stAcre1500115001150011500
– HarrowingAcre1200000011200
– PlantingMD150812008120081200
– Weeding(1st)MD150101500101500101500
– Weeding (2nd)MD15000101500101500
– GappingMD1500011501150
– ThinningMD1500011501150
– Top dressingMD1500023004600
– DustingMD1500023002300
– HarvestingMD  00000
– Cutting & stookingMD15046006900101500
– DehuskingMD1504600690081200
– Shelling & baggingBags3051501545030900
– Gunny bagsBags3051501545030900
Transport – Farm to storeBags105501515030300
– To market/boardBags1005500151500303000
Total Working Capital   7,350 16,550 26,000
Interest on Working capital(16 percent onW/C)   1,176.002,648.004,160.00
Total variable costs(TVC)   8,526 19,198 30,160
Gross Margin (GI-TVC)   1,474 10,802 29,840
GROSS MARGIN / acre   1,474010,802029,840



The Ministry of Agriculture coordinates the implementation of agricultural, cooperative and rural development policies. The specific functions which will be pursued by the Ministry include: rural development policy; agricultural policy; crop production and marketing; land use policy; pests and disease control; agricultural research; phytosanitary services; information management for agricultural sector; cooperatives; regional development authorities; among others.


A parastatal established under the Science and Technology Act (Cap 250) with the national mandate to carry out research activities covering agricultural and livestock development through its 17 research centers countrywide. KARI seeds units need to stock enough seeds and carry out more adaptive research on new maize varieties.


KEPHIS was established by the Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service Order, 1996 under the State Corporations Act (Cap 446). It is mandated to : co-ordinate all matters related to pests and disease control; monitor the quality and levels of toxic residue in plants, their soils and products; administer Plant Breeders Rights; undertake inspection, testing, certification, quarantine control, variety testing and description of seeds and planting materials; establish the machinery for educating public on safe use of agro-chemicals; approve import application for seeds, plants and appropriate phytosanitary requirements and importation of such material; and be responsible for inspection of produce for export and import.


A Parastatal established under the Pest Control Products Act (Cap 346). Its functions are to regulate the importation, exportation, manufacture, distribution and use of products used for the control of pests and of the organic functions of plants and animals and for connected purposes. Some of these activities are being performed by KEPHIS. This calls for harmonization of these activities in order to avoid any conflicts.


The NCPB Act, Cap.338, that made NCPB a corporate body, was enacted in 1985. Under the Act, the Board was given monopoly powers to purchase, store, market and generally manage cereal grains and other produce in Kenya. As a legal monopoly, NCPB was empowered to regulate and control the collection, movement, storage, sale, purchase, transportation, marketing, processing, distribution, importation, exportation, and supply of maize, wheat and other scheduled agricultural produce under a controlled price system. During this period of monopoly, the NCPB worked very closely with other established agricultural institutions to ensure that the needs of the farmers were met. These institutions included the Agricultural Finance Corporation (AFC), which was the main provider of credit and the Kenya Farmers Association (KFA) which was the main provider of farm inputs.


It is a parastatal established under the Standards Act ( Cap 496). Its primary function is to promote standardization in commerce and industry through development of standards, quality control, certification and metrology. It has the mandate of establishing and enforcing quality standards of all products on the Kenyan Market, both locally produced and imported. It is evident that the roles of KEPHIS and that of KEBS overlap thereby creating a conflict. Given that KEPHIS specializes in plants, the Standards Act should be amended to exclude seeds, planting materials, horticultural and other agricultural produce.


It is a parastatal established under the Science and Technology Act (Cap 250). It is mandated to undertake research and development in industrial and allied technologies. KIRDI collaborates with Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Development and other stakeholders in technology development and transfer processing of maize produce.


Among the universities and colleges, Nairobi, Jomo Kenyatta, Moi, Egerton, Baraton and Bukura provide courses at degree and diploma levels related to agriculture, environment and are also involved in research.


Liaises with stakeholders in agriculture industry to ensure hygiene in market and public places. It also protects Kenyan consumers from the health risks of contaminated food. The Ministry ensures regular inspection of food premises to ensure they conform to health requirements. Also, inspection of food imports at ports of entry is made in order to detect foreign diseases. It participates in promotion of food hygiene curricula in schools. The ministry should give advice on appropriate eating habits.


The Ministry is responsible for environmental policy, environmental impact assessment, catchment area conservation, water conservation, among others.


The Ministry also supplies clean water for industry and domestic use. Liaise with Ministry of Agriculture and others to initiate programmes to encourage multipurpose use and reuse of water for irrigation purposes.


The Ministry is responsible for construction, maintenance and rehabilitation of classified roads. The road network accounts for 80 percent of the country’s total passenger and freight traffic.


The Ministry is responsible for postal and telecommunication services as well as transport by railways, road, sea, lake and air in Kenya. It is also in charge of harbors, ports, and metrological services, among others.


They develop market and market infrastructure for agricultural produce among others. They are also responsible for collection and disposal of garbage, provision of sanitary facilities and land allocation for marketing facilities.


Key areas of policy concerns are:-

  • Increasing agricultural productivity and incomes especially for smallholder farmers
  • Emphasis on irrigation to reduce over-reliance on rainfed agriculture in the face of limited high potential agricultural land
  • Encouraging diversification into non- traditional agricultural commodities and value addition to reduce vulnerability
  • Enhancing the food security and reduction in the no. of those suffering from hunger and hence the achievement of the MDGs
  • Encouraging private-sector led development of the sector
  • Ensuring environmental sustainability
  • Production of maize for biofuel production


  • Seed production – contract farmers to produce seed
  • Livestock feed – growing of Maize as fodder and also manufacturing livestock feeds
  • Industrial use – production of starch for textile industries
  • Production of edible oil for domestic purposes
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