The increasing human population is leading to increased land pressure. Consequently, the smaller land sizes cannot support dairy cattle, making the dairy goat a better option. As a nation by promoting dairy goat’s production we will be addressing the millennium development goals of Alleviating extreme poverty and hunger. Goats are a good pathway out of poverty for smallholders. The high quality of goat’s milk addresses malnutrition at the household level.
Milk is the main product from a dairy enterprise, produced basically as food for human consumption. A dairy farmer must therefore aim at maximising on milk output from his/her dairy herd. At the same time the farmer must ensure that milk is produced in clean and hygienic conditions so that it is fit for human consumption.
From public’s health point of view, milk is a very good media for bacterial and other micro-organisms development. As such, disease hazard in public can easily be predisposed by infected milk during production, handling and marketing.
As business, milk which is not available for human and economical use is a loss to the producing farmer. The following reasons will justify why ever farmer should strive to produce clean and wholesome milk:
- Farmers are not paid for the milk which is rejected in the market. As such, they lose in labour and other inputs used in producing this milk.
- Dirty milk will have keeping period and if it cannot be used quickly, then it is thrown away and lost as useless food.
- Rejected milk due to dirt means a total loss as a source of food for the nation. The nation will therefore spend money to import such food and that money spent could have been used for other development projects.
Other products include. castrates, culls, breeding stock, and skins.
Include: hooves , manure, bones, horns, blood
- Availability of goat rearing space.
- High demand for goat’s milk.
- Availability of goat’s semen at CAIS.
- High nutritional and medicinal value of goat’s milk.
- Highly trained personnel are available.
- Credit facilities available.
In some communities goat’s milk is not acceptable. Though this is changing with time, there is need for concerted effort from all the stakeholder to promote consumption of goat’s milk.
To support the development of goat enterprise training of farmers on Dairy goat husbandry is essential and dissemination of information on available opportunities
- Lactation period is 240 days
- Daily feed intake 5kg fresh material and 1 kg of fodder legume
- Average production level =3lts per day
- 20 minutes per day for milking
- 1hr per day for cleaning feeding and watering
- The Gross margin was calculated for 1 year
- Lifespan of the goat house is 10yrs (where local materials are used in housing)
- Productive Life of a doe is 8yrs
- Equipments-Milking equipment, hoof trimmers /clippers/knife, drenching Syringe, Rubber-ring elastrator, rubbers, drinking bucket, ear tags/ applicator, Burdizzo, spray pump.
Advantages of Rearing Dairy Goats
There are many advantages that can be realised from keeping the dairy goats.
- Have a superior production capacity than a cow. A dairy cow is bigger in size and therefore requires more feeds, water, mineral salt and labour than the dairy goat
- Can be reared in urban and peri-urban plots. This is because the faecal consistence (pellets) is easier to handle and dispose than the bulky cow dung of the dairy cattle
- Requires relatively smaller space than a dairy cow
- Dairy goats are much easier to convert to money than a cow
- Dairy goats are less vulnerable to diseases especially tick borne diseases e.g. anaplasmosis, babesiosis and is not susceptible to ECF
- Goats are fastidious feeders as a result they are the last animals to die from drought.
- Goats consume a wide variety of grasses, weeds and small branches of bushes and trees. They also act as scavengers consuming discarded leaves peelings and roots of vegetables, husks of corn, citrus and banana peeling and other waste plant residues that would otherwise cause pollution
The Small East African Goat
- These goats occur throughout East Africa from dessert to urban and known in tribal or local names.
- Their colour ranges from pure white to pure black with various intermixes of roan and speckled brown.
- The tassels (toggles) in up to 30 percent of the population. Adult males can weigh 30- 40kg and female’s 25-30kg.
- They grow up to a height of 64cm at the shoulders.
- Both sexes have horns that sweep directly backwards and are often curved upwards at the tip.
- The horns vary from 2.5 cm to 20cm. The ears are of medium length (approximately 12cm), are slightly pendent and rarely pricked.
- 40 percent of the males under 14 months have beards.
- The coat is short and fine in both males and females but has longer hair on the hind quarters.
- The males often have a pronounced mane running the full length of the buck.
- They are mainly kept for meat as their milk is rarely enough for one kid.
- They are a useful animal to use as a base in an upgrading programme.
- The Galla goat is an indigenous to Northern Kenya. It is also known as the Boran or Somali goat.
- It’s the milk queen of the Kenyan arid and semi arid areas.
- The female is about 60cm wide at the shoulders and weighs 45-55kgs.
- The male weighs up to 70kgs. They are white haired with a black skin, nose feet and underneath the tail.
- Another subtype exists that has colour around the neck and lower legs and black stripe down the spine.
- The females are long-lived and will continue to breed and rear healthy kids up to 10 years of age.
- They carry better milk genes and give greater opportunity for genetic selection for this trait.
- The back is fairly long and slightly dipped.
- They are docile animals easy to handle but do not like cold wet climate, thriving best in low altitude preferably in acacia bush country.
- They have a higher compensatory growth rate after long dry season. The Galla produces about half litre of milk per day.
- This is the milk queen in the goat world. It originated from Switzerland.
- It’s all white or creamy coloured with pink skin pigmentation.
- The face is straight, the ears are upright and alert (pricked) the hair is short and fine and the body is long. As a rule, Saanen does not carry tassels.
- Under good management it produces 3-5 litres of milk per day depending on management.
- They are prolific and have high twinning rate. Sometimes the kids are born with both male and female organs (hermaphrodite). This has been observed on polled goats.
- Mature male weighs 70-100 kg and mature female weighs 50-70 kg.
- The female measures 74 -80 cm in height while the mature buck measures 81-92cm. Udders are usually shapely and well attached.
- There are two breeds of Toggenburg one originating from Switzerland and the other one from Britain.
- The British breed is bigger than the Swiss breed with the female of the British type weighing up to 70kg and bucks up to 100 kg.
- With Swiss type, the female weigh are in the range of 50kgs with bucks up to 70 kg.
- They are brown or greyish brown in colour with distinctive white stripes on the face and legs.
- They may be horned or naturally polled. Horns in male are long and curving back.
- They may have toggles (tassels) or not. They are very gentle and quiet in temperament.
- They are easily handled and can be trained and good management.
- They have a long body and seem bony. They are bred for milk with average milk yield of 1-3lts per day depending on management.
- The breed is suited for the higher cooler regions where heat stress is not a problem and, good quality fodder is freely available.
- The breed originated in French Alps.
- They are medium to large in size and are hardy and adaptable animals thriving in many climates.
- They have a varied coat colour with shades of grey, brown, black, redbuff and combinations.
- They have a pronounced mane in both male and female.
- They may or may not have horns. The goat is bred for milk with average milk yield ranging from 2.5-4lts subject to levels of management.
- The Female weighs from 50-60kgs while bucks weigh 65-80kg. The female ranges in height from 70-76.cm and the male 80-90cm when mature.
- There are many crosses depending on the breeds used.
- The exotic breeds have been crossed with the local breeds to get a better adapted and higher yielding animal than the local goats.
- This is the best starting point for those with the local goats wishing to keep dairy goats.
- The performance of the crosses has varying degree of success depending on environment and management.
- There are also crosses between the exotic breeds for instance Saanen and Alpine.
Selection and Breeding
Selection of the Breeding Buck
There are several important things when selecting for breeding
- A healthy and good quality buck (he goat). The buck must be healthy, strong and should have a well-developed body frame. It must be of productive breed. It must have normal sexual organs and well-developed testicles. The buck must be selected from does that produce a high volume of milk and are prolific.
- Control mating i.e. Limit the number of does per male (the recommended ratio is 1male for 35 does)
- The Buck must be free of any physical defects e.g. undershot jaws, overshot jaws
- It should have a strong masculine head and neck and noisy and should seek out females on heat and mate them. If it’s shy and timid it should be culled.
- Badly worn teeth indicate old age. Males with split, missing or worn teeth should not be selected for breeding as they are physically unable to browse or graze properly.
- Legs should be checked for deformities and hooves trimmed.
Selecting a Replacement Buck
· A healthy a well-developed male for mating should be identified by the second month of birth. It should be used for breeding when it is 11 months old. Depending on the dairy breed the buck should weigh 10-15 kg at six months and about 20-25 kg at 11-12 months of age.
· At the beginning the use of young buck should be limited to 10-15 does per male, but at the end of the second year the number of does can be increased and maintained at 35-40 does per buck. One active buck can deal with 20-25 females per season
· Bucks should be properly utilised to control their temperament. Under-utilised bucks tend to be vicious and very destructive. At least 3 services per week will keep the buck busy.
· Breeding of male and female polled goats may result in hermaphrodite kid(s).
· Replace bucks after 18-24 months of active service to prevent inbreeding.
Selection of the breeding doe
The productivity of a flock depends on the good quality of the mother.
Select does with high milk production and high fertility rate.
· The doe must be well built and healthy. A female should not be mated unless it’s physically fit. Thin females will not come into heat, will be become pregnant and abort, and reabsorb the foetus at early stage. Those which are mated and carry their kid will be unable to rear it satisfactorily.
· Legs should be checked for deformities and hooves trimmed. Good strong legs are essential for breeding doe. Weak bent hind legs are highly heritable factor and females with this should not be selected for breeding.
· It should produce kids every 8-10 months
· It should produce twins frequently
· It should produce enough milk to rear the twins and for the household consumption
· The udder should be soft to touch with two functional teats. Any hardiness indicates the female has had a problem e.g. mastitis. Long pendulous udder is highly heritable and females with this should not be used for breeding. Big udder is liable to tearing by thorns and kids have difficult in suckling them. It also predisposes the doe to mastitis.
· Badly worn teeth indicate old age. Females with split, missing or worn teeth should not be selected for breeding as they are physically unable to browse or graze properly.
· Any female with physical deformities (e.g. bad feet, hard udders, blind eyes ) should not be selected for breeding
NB: Farmers should seek breeding animals from registered breeding farms.
There are several breeding systems that can be used in breeding of dairy goats depending on the environment and purpose.
Heritability factors (Inheritable traits)
Many of the qualities in goats are highly heritable and knowledge of those which can be passed on from parents to the progeny is useful to the breeder who wishes to improve his stock
Highly heritability factor
- Live weight at 6 months
- Age at first kidding
- Body weight
- Milk yield
Low heritability Factors
- Birth weight
- Litter size
- Kidding interval
- Milk flavour
This is mating of closely related individuals without the introduction of new animals from outside. If the process continues animals with undesirable characteristics are likely to appear e.g. physical deformities, sterility and reduced body sizes.
This is a mild form of inbreeding designed to concentrate the genes of a specific ancestor
This is system where two different parent breeds are mated. The first generation crosses are intermediate to the parent breeds. The offspring are superior to the parental breed in some cases (hybrid vigour). The offspring’s displays increase in size better live-weight gains fertility and viability
This involves crossbred offspring’s being bred to one of the parents
Foundation refers to an F1 (first generation) at 50 percent, Intermediate (second generation) is at 75 percent, an appendix (third generation) is at 87.5 percent and pedigree (Fourth generation) is at 92.5 percent. The percentage represent the proportion of the exotic blood in the resultant cross (breed)
Signs of a Doe on Heat
For a doe to come on heat it should be nutritively fed under proper alongside appropriate supplementary feeding of concentrates and mineral licks.
A doe on heat will show the following signs:
- The vulva appears swollen and reddened
- Loosing of appetite and restlessness
- Frequent urination
- Bleating and nervousness
- Wagging of the tail
- Slight mucus discharge from the vulva
The presence of a buck has been shown to induce heat in a doe that could have been problematic in detection of heat.
Heat can also be induced by rubbing a piece of clothe around the base of the buck’s horn and then taking the clothe to the doe.
For successful fertilisation to occur the doe has to feed well and kept in good shed. She must be in good health.
To become pregnant the doe and the buck must mate. A doe noticed to be on heat should be brought to the buck and remain with it for a period of not less than 36 hrs for effective mating to take place.
If mating is successful, heat signs will not appear and pregnancy will be assumed to have occurred. The gestation period lasts for 5 months.
If mating has not been successful heat signs will occur and a second mating service will be necessary. Repeated signs of heat even when the doe has been mated could be due to a problem with either the buck or the doe and therefore the doe and the buck should be examined by a vet.
Artificial Insemination services for Dairy Goats are available at the Central Artificial Insemination Station (Kabete). The semen available is for German Alpine sold at kshs 500 per straw.
Feeds and Feeding
Goats require five major classes of feeds:
- Mineral salts
Goats consume a wide variety of grasses, weeds and small branches of bushes and trees. They can consume leaves, peelings and roots of vegetables, husks of corn, citrus and banana peeling and other waste plant residues. Goats are ruminant and therefore chew cud and are able to utilise roughage with high fibre content. They produce protein, vitamin B and K in the rumen.
Goats are fastidious feeders as a result they are the last animals to die from drought.
Sources of Protein
Leucaena, Calliandra, Mulberry, Grevellia, Gliricidia, Sesbania, Tithonia, Lantana camara, Siratro, Sweet potato vine, Clitoria tarnatae, Lucerne, Desmodium
Most of these herbaceous legumes have anti-nutritional factors (eg tannins and cyanides). It’s recommended that these should not exceed 25 percent of the total feed requirement per day. They should be wilted before feeding.
Agro industrial by Products
Groundnut cake, cotton seed cake, Sunflower cake.
Rhodes grass, Napier grass, Panicum spp, Cenchrus spp, Sorghum, Bana grass.
Banana stems and leaves should be fed as a last resort to feed demand.
Maize, millet, Rice, Wheat, Barley, oats Sorghum others include bean haulms, Sugar cane tops, Sunflower heads
Agro industrial by-products
Maize germ, maize bran.
Care of Pregnant Doe (She-goat)
- Protein supplements are important during the dry period (non lactating period). This is because the kids are growing faster at this time.
- If you have been feeding legumes which are high in calcium its best to replace these with high energy feeds (e.g. hay) at least three weeks before kidding to prevent milk fever. This forces the doe to mobilise its own body stores and prepare for milking.
- Deworm the doe two weeks prior to kidding
- A goat requires 3 percent (of its body weight in dry matter approximately 1.5 kg) per day or 5 kg of fresh materials should be availed to the doe per day. The complete meal should comprise of both the protein and energy feed.
- Provide the does with salt lick and at least either half a kilo of dairy meal per day or a mixture of pollard and bran
- Provide adequate clean water all the time.
Care of Lactating Doe
At the end of the 5th month, check for the following signs of approaching birth:
- Reduced feed intake
- Rapid breathing
- Doe will constantly look back unto her sides as if expecting to see young ones.
- Enlarged udder that may or may not discharging colostrums.
- Swollen vulva
- And thick mucus discharge from the vulva.
- The hair around the tail and the rear should be clipped and fresh beddings (straw or grass) provided.
- The kid is born after short labour but incase of difficult kidding expert (Vet doctor) should be consulted.
Feeding Lactating Doe
- Amount of concentrates fed should be in proportion to the amount of milk being produced.
- A small quantity of concentrates should be fed to the dry doe in order to build up the body reserves and help in the development of her unborn kid.
The following table provides a guide to feeding concentrates to a lactating doe
|Dry female||0.5 Kg dairy meal|
|Female milking 1 litre||1.0 Kg dairy meal|
|Female milking 2 litre||1.5 Kg dairy meal|
|Female milking 3 litre||2.0 Kg dairy meal|
|Female milking 4 litre||2.5 Kg dairy meal|
|Female milking 5 litre||3.0 Kg dairy meal|
The dairy meal fed should be divided into 2 portions daily.
Care of the kids
- To prevent naval infection the stump of the umbilical cord should be cleaned and disinfected with iodine, strong salt solution or traditional herbal remedy.
- The new born kid should be placed in a warm area to protect it from strong winds (draft) and cold that may expose it to pneumonia.
- Kids are allowed suckle the colostrums in the first three days after birth, the colostrums is very important to the health and growth of the kid. The colostrums contain antibodies that protect the new kid against diseases until they are able to protect themselves.
- The kid should be allowed to suckle the mother enough milk so as to have the kid as future basis for breeding stock.
- Fostering is advisable if the mother dies or incase of infection of the udder (mastitis).
- Bottle feeding is also an alternative in the absence of the mother.
- Introduce green chop and water after 1 week.
- Kids can be withdrawn from the mother at night so that the doe can be milked in the morning.
- Kids should be weaned at 4 months. Weaning before this time should be compensated with high protein supplements.
When bottle fed the kid should be fed as follows;
|Weeks||Amount of milk (mls)|
- Production Systems
Goats can be kept in extensive, semi-intensive or intensive production systems depending on the availability of land.
Extensive Production System
Under this system goats are allowed to browse (free range) freely. This system is suited for areas where browsing fields are not a problem.
To be effective for dairy goats the flock should have a stockman (herdsman) and the males should be separated from the does to control random mating.
Kids should also be separated from the does to avoid suckling while in the field. The goats should be supplemented with concentrate feeds and mineral salts.
The goats should be provided with housing (night sheds) with 1m2 for each goat (for instance 10m x 3m housing will hold 30 goats) Good goat housing should be dry, well ventilated and provide kids, does, and bucks a healthy comfortable condition. The housing should also provide security from predators.
This system is suited for areas where browsing fields are limited.
It’s suited for a small size of flock and where land is limited. It involves confinement of the goats. The goats are stall-fed (zero-grazed) exclusively and mating is controlled. Does, bucks and kids are housed separately.
Housing under Zero Grazing System
Good goat housing should be dry, well ventilated and provide kids, does, and bucks a healthy comfortable condition. The housing should also provide security from predators and thieves.
Siting of the house
Goats shed should be constructed on the leeward side of the residential house to avoid smell.
Types of Housing
- Raised and sloped floor
It’s easy to build as it requires local materials as enclosures. The floor should be raised 1 foot above level ground and sloped to one side. This allows water and urine to run off. Therefore, easy to clean.
- Raised slated floor
The shed is constructed with local material but the floor is fitted with slats placed at a gap of index finger apart (1 inch). The manure drops to the ground, therefore easy to clean. Ensures ventilation in the shed.
Parts of a Dairy Goat’s Zero Grazing Unit
Housing Plan enough to house 6 dairy goats (8ft by 8ft)
A goat’s house showing slatted floor
Feeding Boxes should be outside the main unit to avoid soiling and wastage
This system combines the intensive and extensive systems. Goats are allowed to browse but are also stall fed to complement browsing.
In addition, the goats should be supplemented with concentrates and mineral salts. Water should be availed all the time. Mating is controlled by separating the buck and does by housing the buck and does separately.
In most cases the bucks are completely stall-fed and females on heat are brought to the buck for mating. This is important as it helps to control the off-flavour in milk and inbreeding.
Goat milk versus Cow milk
|Goat Milk||Cow Milk|
|Has no cream separation because of smaller fat molecules.||Has cream separation because of bigger fat molecules.|
|Contains pre-formed Vitamin A in the milk fat that allows it to be readily available for use by the body||Does not contain pre-formed Vitamin A|
|Contains a more highly-evolved cholesterol||Contains a less highly-evolved cholesterol|
|Has an alkaline reaction the same as mother’s milk||Has an acid reaction|
|Contains 2 percent curd, which precipitates in the stomach.||Contains 10 percent curd.|
|The milk has a higher fat content||The milk has a lower fat content|
Benefits of Goat Milk
- Goat milk contains more chlorine, fluorine and silicon than any other domestic livestock. Chlorine and fluorine are natural germicides and fluorine assists in preventing diabetes.
- Goat’s milk is tolerated by a compromised /damaged liver because of the smaller fat molecules
- The milk is highly digestible and has a mild laxative effect
- The milk has low cholesterol levels hence suitable for people with high blood pressure.
- It’s low in sugar hence good for those suffering from diabetes.
- Goat’s milk has a high nutritional content.
- Goat milk does not form mucous (phlegm) and is therefore better tolerated by asthmatics and those with allergies.
- The milk has a high content of Vitamin B1 which is useful in relieving symptoms of stress
- Goat’s milk has the ability to “sweeten” the intestinal tract and assist with constipation.
Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (viral disease)
- High fever.
- Harsh cough.
- A lot nasal discharge.
- Grunting and grinding of teeth.
- High mortality rate
- The lung sounds are raspy (like paper rubbing)
- At post mortem the thoracic cavity contains a lot of fluid and adhesion of pleural to the lung surface
Vaccination twice a year
Mastitis (bacterial disease)
- Swollen udder.
- The udder is painful to touch and hot.
- The walking gait is not normal
- The doe refuses to nurse the young
Observe general hygiene
Brucellosis (Bacterial Disease)
- Abortion at around the final 4 -6 weeks of pregnancy
- High fever
Abscesses (Secondary bacterial infection)
- Supurative (pus developing) swellings
- High fever
Draining of pus and use of antibiotics
Prevention from exposure to injuries and wounds
Foot rot (Bacterial disease)
- Foul smell in the foot
Wash with copper sulphate
Keep the goats in a clean and dry environment
PPR (Peste des petits ruminants) – Viral disease
- Nasal discharge
- Profuse (frequent) diarrhoea
- High fever
Rift Valley Fever (viral disease)
- Nasal discharge
- Bloody diarrhoea
- High fever
Enterotoxaemia (Bacterial disease)
- Loss of appetite
- Affect animals in good condition
- Death within 24 hrs
Antibiotics in the early stages
|Contagious Caprine pleuropneumonia (ccpp).||High fever. Harsh cough. Nasal discharge. Grunting and grinding of teeth.||Caused by mycoplasma spp||None||Vaccination.|
|Mastitis||Swollen udder. Painful to touch and hot.||Staph. aureus. Pastaurella.spp E.coli||Intramammary infusion||Observe cleanliness during milking.|
|Brucellosis||High abortion rate at around the final 4 -6 weeks of pregnancy High fever Diarrhoea||Brucella spp.||Penicillin injection||Vaccination|
|Abscesses.||Supurative swellings.||Injuries due to thorns ect.followed by infection e.g. corynebacteriam||Systemic antibiotics.||Avoid sharp surfaces, objects that can cause injuries to the animals.|
|Foot rot||Lameness, reddening around the coronet.||Wet & dirty floors||Parenteral antibiotics. Copper sulphate for foot.||Clean and dry beddings.|
|PPR ,Peste-des petits-ruminatis||Emaciation, nasal discharge, Profuse (frequent) diarrhoea, high fever.||Viral disease||none||Vaccination.|
|Rift valley fever||Emaciation, nasal discharge, bloody diarrhoea, high fever.||Viral||None||Vaccination.|
|Orf||Occurs in young kids in the first 6 month of life, Inability to suck or feed Lesions (wounds) on mouth nose and on feet and genitals in severe cases||Viral||None||Vaccination|
|Enterotoxaemia||Convulsion, Sluggishness, Staggers Loss of appetite Affect animals in good condition Death within 24 hrs||Clostridium bacterias||None||Vaccination|
Management of Parasitic Infestation
Most animals carry parasites burdens, but the pressure of parasites is not serious until the population rises to the extent that the host animals start showing signs e.g. weight loss, diarrhoea, unthriftness, bottle jaw, coughs, loss of hair, scratching against the wall.
The parasites are divided into ecto and endo –parasites.
- These are mainly the ticks, biting flies, fleas, mites.
- This can be controlled by spraying with appropriate acaricide or using a pour-on acaricide.
- These are mainly worms e.g. round worms, tapeworms, lung worms, flukes.
Regular deworming of goats and kids after every 3 months. Repeat deworming to any animal showing worm infestation.
This is a management practice to control abnormal growth of hooves that may lead to lameness in goats.
The overgrown hooves can be trimmed using hoof knife and dipping the hooves in copper sulphate solution.
The stock should have their feet regularly checked for damage due to overgrown hooves.
Castrate the young males not intended for breeding at six months. This can be done by using the rubber-ring elastrator.
This done at 3 months of age using hot bars (de-budding irons) It’s done to both male and female kids.
DAIRY GOAT GROSS MARGIN ANALYSIS
|INVESTMENT COSTS||UNIT||UNIT PRICE||NO.OF UNITS||INPUT COST|
|Purchase of in-kid doe||No.||12000||1||12,000|
|Housing (10 percent)||No.||10,000||1||1000|
|Equipment (5 percent)||No.||15,100||1||755|
|GROSS OUTPUT||UNIT||UNIT PRICE||NO OF UNITS||(KSHS)|
|1. Milk (SOLD)||Litres||80||360||28800|
|2. Manure quantity of Nitrogen||Kg||50||20||1000|
|3. Female Kid||Kg||400||15||6000|
|4. Gunny bags||bag||30||4||120|
|5. On farm consumption||litres||80||240||19200|
|TOTAL GROSS OUTPUT (TR)||55,120|
|2. Feeding Doe|
|Cleaning , feeding, watering||MD||150||45||6,750|
|Total Variable Costs (TVC)||31550|
Marketing of goat’s milk
If the milk is to be sold raw its important to package it depending on your customers.
There is a ready market for goats milk in various hospitals
Prices range from Kshs.60-100 per litre.
Value addition on goat’s milk can be done to produce yoghurt, and cheese
Goats milk can also be pasteurised
- Dairy goat association of Kenya (D.G.A.K.).
- Central artificial insemination station (C.A.I.S)
- Government Sheep and goat stations
- Research institutions colleges and universities.
- NGOS-GTZ, Farm Africa, Heifer project international.
- Financial institutions- Banks, AFC.
- Kenya Dairy Board (KDB)
- Ministry of Livestock Development
- Ministry of Cooperative
- Ministry of Gender and Social Development